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This guide is designed to answer questions municipal councillors and civic officials might have about public-private partnerships (P3s or PPPs).

There is growing financial and political pressure on municipalities to use P3s to close the infrastructure gap and deliver services. Proponents of P3s stress their perceived benefits, and the manuals P3 advocates prepare reflect this optimism.

This guide asks questions that probe deeper into the costs and benefits of P3s, giving municipalities a better understanding of what they involve.  ased on the answers to these questions, this guide urges municipalities to take a cautious stand, fully examine the evidence, and ask the right questions  before considering entering into a P3.

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